The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) is a department within the Department of Transportation. Formerly, it was a part of the Federal Highway Administration. Established on January 1, 2000, FMCSA’s mission is “to prevent commercial motor vehicle-related fatalities and injuries.” As such, the FMCSA implements a variety of regulations and standards pertaining to motor carriers (truck and bus companies).
However, the FMCSA isn’t the only regulatory body that issues and enforces regulations impacting the trucking and transport industry. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, part of the Department of Transportation, issues regulations for all types of motor vehicles, while the Environmental Protection Agency issues regulations on emissions as well as other standards to address the environmental impact of motor vehicles and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration provides regulatory oversight on workplace safety, including the use and operation of motor vehicles in the workplace.
We’ve created this guide to provide an overview of FMCSA, NHTSA, and other regulations for truck manufacturers, including the regulations manufacturers need to know, regulations impacting drivers and operators, and more.
In this guide, we’ll discuss:
- Who Must Comply with FMCSA Regulations?
- An Overview of FMCSA Regulations for Truck Manufacturers
- NHTSA Regulations Impacting Truck Manufacturers
- Requirements for Data Plates
- OSHA, EPA, and Other Regulations Truck Manufacturers Should Know
- Additional Resources
Who Must Comply with FMCSA Regulations?
While most FMCSA regulations relate to the operation of commercial vehicles, truck manufacturers should be aware of FMCSA regulations and how these regulatory requirements may apply to the manufacturing process. Anyone operating the following types of commercial vehicles in interstate commerce must comply with FMCSA regulations:
- Vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating or gross combination weight rating of 10,001 lb (4,537 kg) or more, whichever is greater
- Vehicles designed for or used in transporting 9 to 15 passengers for compensation, including the driver
- Vehicles designed for or used in transporting 16 or more passengers, including the driver
- Vehicles of any size designed for or used in transporting hazardous materials per the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 5101 et seq.)
Note that vehicles designed for or used for transporting hazardous materials are required to be placarded under the Hazardous Materials Regulations (49 CFR chapter I, subchapter C).
Per these criteria, vehicles such as taxis and other vehicles with a similar capacity are not subject to FMCSA regulations. Additionally, the number of passengers a vehicle is designed for always trumps the number of passengers a vehicle is actually carrying. In other words, a bus carrying seven passengers across state lines but designed to hold up to 20 passengers is subject to FMCSA regulations.
As a general rule, when a vehicle crosses state lines, even if the trip will be completed in the original state, those vehicles are subject to federal regulations (the FMCSA) rather than individual state regulations. On the other hand, vehicles and operators that engage only in intrastate commerce are subject to applicable state and local regulations, not necessarily to the FMCSA, although all states are required to have motor vehicle carrier regulations that are practically identical to the FMCSA’s. That said, states may have different definitions, registration and oversight procedures.
It’s also worth noting that for passenger transportation, even companies that have through-ticketing agreements with other carriers are considered to be interstate carriers, and thus they’re subject to FMCSA regulations as well – even when the company itself engages only in intrastrate transit. However, there are a number of circumstances that would exempt certain vehicles and operators from being subject to FMCSA regulations. This article provides an excellent overview of these exemptions for passenger motor carriers.
An Overview of FMCSA Regulations for Truck Manufacturers
Anyone operating any of the types of vehicles described above must comply with applicable safety regulations issued by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) related to:
- Alcohol and controlled substances testing for any persons required to have a CDL (commercial driver’s license)
- Appropriate driver qualifications, including medical exams
- Regulations applicable to operating commercial vehicles
- Parts and accessories required for safe operation
- Hours of service
- Regulations pertaining to inspection, repairs, and maintenance
- Unsafe Driving
- Hours-of-Service (HOS) Compliance
- Driver Fitness
- Controlled Substances/Alcohol
- Vehicle Maintenance
- Hazardous Materials Compliance
- Crash Indicator
Most of these regulations relate to drivers and operators, who are facing some regulatory changes in the coming years. The Electronic Logging Device (ELD) mandate is one newer regulation receiving mixed reactions among industry associations and operators. Fleets were required to implement universal ELDs into their business models by December 2017, while fleets that were already using electronic logging technology have until December 2019 to comply with all published requirements.
ELDs are synchronized with a truck’s engine and aim to improve driver and highway safety by automatically logging hours of service (HOS), which guidelines restrict to 60 to 70 hours on duty over 7 to 8 consecutive days. These electronic tracking systems replace the paper logging methodology employed by many drivers. Drivers are also required to:
- Carry an instruction manual on operating the ELD
- An instructional sheet outlining the step-by-step process for transferring HOS records (which is used during roadside inspections)
- An instructional sheet outlining procedures for handling and reporting on ELD malfunctions
- Paper logs on HOS for the previous 8 days
While drivers are required to have these items in possession, it’s the carrier’s responsibility to provide all of these materials to their operators when the ELDs are purchased. In addition to tracking hours, many ELDs also offer GPS capability, direct communication between carriers and owner/operators, and even provide some document organization functionality.
ELD manufacturers are responsible for ensuring that their devices meet the required technical specifications and also for registering their devices with the FMCSA. ELDs may also include portable ELDs and even mobile phones, provided that they meet the technical specifications and are registered. The FMCSA provides a helpful checklist that outlines these specifications and provides guidance for carriers and operators on selecting an appropriate ELD.
Speed limiters are another possible change currently in consideration. This proposed mandate would require manufacturers to equip new trucks with speed limiting capabilities that would limit the maximum speed of the vehicle to 65 miles per hour. The debate has been heated surrounding the possible introduction of this requirement, although many industry associations have rallied around a proposed 65 mph limit. Due to recent cutbacks on federal regulation, this proposal is currently stalled.
NHTSA Regulations Impacting Truck Manufacturers
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) issues standards particularly related to the manufacture of motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment. Specifically, NHTSA issues regulations on highway safety and motor vehicle safety. NHTSA and FMCSA often work collaboratively, issuing joint proposals such as the proposed speed limiter mandate discussed above. Specifically, NHTSA implements and enforces the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966, as amended, 49 U.S.C. Chapter 301 (the Vehicle Safety Act), as well as other laws related to motor vehicle safety. It is the federal agency that issues and enforces all federal motor vehicle safety standards (FMVSS).
NHTSA regulations are the regulatory standards most directly related to the manufacture of heavy-duty vehicles and parts, and there are myriad regulations targeting specific safety guidelines and rules. For new manufacturers, the NHTSA publishes a guidebook with comprehensive information on procedural requirements, VINs, federal motor vehicle safety standards, and more.
The NHTSA regularly issues publications on proposed rules, requests for commentary, and final rules. For example, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems is a rule that amends the previous Federal motor vehicle safety standard on air brake systems to improve the stopping distance performance for truck tractors. Specifically, 49 CFR Part 571 requires most new heavy truck tractors to achieve a stopping distance of 30% less than required by previous standards. These trucks are required to stop within 250 feet when loaded to their maximum gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) from a speed of 60 miles per hour (with the exception of a few very heavy severe service tractors, which have a requirement of 310 feet). All heavy truck tractors must stop within 235 feet when loaded to their LLVW, or lightly loaded vehicle weight.
Another example is a 2012 proposal to establish a new Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 136, which would require electronic stability control (ESC) systems on truck tractors and on buses with a gross vehicle weight rating of more than 26,000 pounds (11,793 kilograms). These systems, when used in truck trailers and large buses, can reduce untripped rollovers and mitigate conditions that lead to a loss of control through automatic computer-controlled braking and a reduction in engine torque output.
As federal regulations are often complex and the specific guidelines often difficult to navigate, there are a few resources that aim to demystify the regulatory landscape for truck and trailer manufacturers. The Truck Trailer Manufacturers Association, for instance, maintains a list of important federal regulations including:
- 49 CFR Transportation
- 49 CFR 571-121 Air Brakes
- 49 CFR 571.108 Lighting
- 49 CFR 571.223 Rear Impact Guard
- 49 CFR 571.224 Rear Impact Protection
- 49 CFR 567 Certification
Requirements for Data Plates
Truck and trailer manufacturers must equip all vehicles with appropriate data plates. First, there are a number of steps required:
- Obtain a World Manufacturing Identifier (WMI) from the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). This number becomes part of the VIN for all vehicles you manufacture and is used to identify your company as the vehicle’s manufacturer.
- Register with NHTSA. Manufacturers generate their own VINs using NHTSA’s VIN formula. The content requirements are described in detail in Part 565.15.
- VINs are then submitted to NHTSA with a letter of introduction.
- Individual states also have their own registration requirements and regulations, so manufacturers should be aware of and follow all state requirements in addition to federal requirements.
- VIN labels are affixed to every vehicle manufactured with the following self-certification statement: “This vehicle conforms to all applicable US FMVSS in effect on the date of manufacture shown above.”
Each VIN contains important information about the vehicle including:
- The manufacturer
- Type of motor vehicle
- Attributes of the vehicle
- A check digit
- Vehicle model year
- Plant of manufacture
- Number sequentially assigned during the manufacturing process (for high-volume manufacturers)
There are some differences in the VIN based on whether the manufacturer is a high-volume manufacturer or a low-volume manufacturer. As noted in Part 565.15: “If a manufacturer is a low-volume manufacturer, the third, fourth, and fifth characters of the fourth section (positions 12, 13, and 14), combined with the three characters of the first section (positions 1, 2, and 3), shall uniquely identify the manufacturer and type of the motor vehicle and the sixth, seventh, and eighth characters of the fourth section (positions 15, 16, and 17) shall represent the number sequentially assigned by the manufacturer in the production process.”
The attributes of the vehicle that a VIN includes vary based on the type of vehicle. For trucks, these attributes include:
- Model or line
- Gross vehicle weight rating
- Engine type
- Brake system
- Cab type
For trailers, the attributes contained in the VIN include:
- Type of trailer
- Body type
- Axle configuration
Gross vehicle weight ratings are coded by class, consisting of classes A through H and classes 3 through 8, each class representing a gross vehicle weight rating range.
There are also requirements specifying the location and readability of the VIN. Per Part 565.23: “The VIN of each vehicle shall appear clearly and indelibly upon either a part of the vehicle, other than the glazing, that is not designed to be removed except for repair or upon a separate plate or label that is permanently affixed to such a part.” For passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, and trucks with a GVWR of 4536 kg or less, the regulations stipulate that the VIN must be located inside the passenger compartment. Additionally, “It shall be readable, without moving any part of the vehicle, through the vehicle glazing under daylight lighting conditions by an observer having 20/20 vision (Snellen) whose eye-point is located outside the vehicle adjacent to the left windshield pillar. Each character in the VIN subject to this paragraph shall have a minimum height of 4 mm.”
VINs consist of 17 characters, yet these characters convey a substantial amount of crucial information required for reporting and other purposes. But some manufacturers must also comply with guidelines that require Convention for Safe Containers (CSC) Plates. CSC is an international standard that aims to ensure the safety of shipping containers. CSC Plates provide additional information related to safety including:
- Verification that the container passed specific tests
- Verification that the container met minimum standards for capacity, weight, and resistance to shipping forces
- A four-digit code identifying the container owner and the container’s intended use
In addition to VIN plates and CSC plates, data plates are used for a variety of purposes in the transportation industry including:
- Asset management and traceability
- Dolly and chassis identification plates
- Inspection and maintenance schematics
Because data plates contain essential information for safety, asset tracking, and other purposes, truck manufacturers must install data plates with the durability to withstand the harsh conditions trucks and trailers often operate in, while remaining readable despite frequent abrasion and exposure to UV and harsh weather elements. For this reason, Metalphoto® photosensitive anodized aluminum is often the material of choice.
OSHA, EPA, and Other Regulations Truck Manufacturers Should Know
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued new greenhouse gas emissions and fuel economy standards in 2016, for which it worked closely with NHTSA to ensure that both agencies’ standards were harmonized. The Phase 2 Final Rule includes medium- and heavy-duty engines and vehicles covering “model years 2018-2027 for certain trailers and model years 2021-2027 for semi-trucks, large pickup trucks, vans, and all types and sizes of buses and work trucks.” However, as of October 2017, these new standards are being considered for possible repeal.
Heavy-duty trucks have been facing increasingly tightening regulations on emissions since 2004. As standards become more stringent, the gap between newly manufactured trucks (which are required to meet the newest standards) and older models widens. As truck manufacturers work to comply with these stricter regulations, the cost of tractors and trailers tends to rise, creating a burden on trucking companies. However, the EPA argued that trucking companies could recoup these added costs over two years through savings produced by better fuel efficiency.
At the time the new rule was issued, the EPA estimated that vehicles (gliders and trailers) using engines manufactured prior to 2002 produced 20 to 40% higher emissions compared to vehicles with newly manufactured engines. Additionally, the standards issued in 2016 created a loophole which would enable companies to install an outdated engine into a newer truck body in order to circumvent these requirements – a recognized problem that both engine manufacturers and environmental agencies encouraged closing.
OSHA’s regulations focus on the operation of motor vehicles in the workplace and not to vehicles operated on public roads. In general, the Department of Transportation (DOT) has jurisdiction when a motor vehicle is operated on public highways, and other federal agencies preempt OSHA’s jurisdiction in situations covered by regulations set forth by other federal agencies. OSHA’s standards cover circumstances such as loading and unloading, hazardous waste transport, the use of mechanical means to secure trucks or trailers to loading docks, and other circumstances that arise in the workplace pertaining to worker safety.
Additional Resources on Regulations and Standards for Truck Manufacturers
For more information on regulations, standards, and guidelines impacting truck manufacturers and the transportation and logistics industry visit the following resources:
- 5 New Regulations that Could Change Trucking
- OSHA – Trucking Industry
- Truckers Report – Trucking Industry Regulations
- Employment Data Indicate Trucking Industry Adapts to Regulatory Hurdles
- ATA – Trucking Issues
- Transportation Industry Outlook 2018: Transportation Enjoys Continued Growth Despite New Regulation and Rising Costs
- Trucking Regulations Under Trump: What You Need to Know
- Here Is Your 2017 DOT Compliance Checklist
The trucking industry is multi-faceted, and there are myriad regulations impacting drivers, carriers, and manufacturers. While making sense of the regulatory landscape can be challenging given the multiple regulatory agencies involved in issuing and enforcing standards and regulations, having a firm grasp on the current requirements is essential for all manufacturers.
Hazard communication, also known as HazCom, is a set of processes and procedures that employers and importers must implement in the workplace to effectively communicate hazards associated with chemicals during handling, shipping, and any form of exposure. Here’s what you need to know about hazard communication, including regulations, Safety Data Sheets (SDS), and label requirements.
A Definition of Hazard Communication
When employees work with chemicals, they face a number of health hazards, including irritation, and physical hazards, such as flammability and corrosion. The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) stipulates that chemical manufacturers and importers must evaluate the hazards of the chemicals with which they deal and pass along that information through labels and safety data sheets. Similarly, any employer with hazardous chemicals in the workplace must design and institute a written hazard communication program, which includes labeling all containers, giving all employees access to safety data sheets, and conducting a training program for all employees who could be exposed to the hazards. OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) specifies how to communicate information about the hazards and how to take protective measures.
The HCS ensures employees have the right to know the chemicals to which they are exposed in the workplace and their hazards. Employees not only must have access to the information, but they also must participate in employers’ training programs and know how to actively and effectively protect themselves. The Hazard Communication Standard also informs employers about designing and implementing these effective protective programs for employees who could be exposed to hazardous chemicals. OSHA’s overall goal is to reduce the number of chemical source illnesses and injuries in workplaces across the nation.
Hazard Communication and the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals
In 2012, OSHA began aligning the HCS with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS). The updated HCS ensures a consistent approach to classifying chemicals and communicating hazard information on labels and safety data sheets. As a result, American businesses more easily trade, handle, store, and use hazardous chemicals. They also realize cost savings because they no longer have to comply with numerous classification and labeling systems.
The updated HCS enables companies and organizations to streamline their safety data sheets and labels to comply with one system, the GHS. As of June 1, 2016, all companies must comply with the GHS.
Safety Data Sheets and Hazard Communication
Safety data sheets must provide comprehensive information about substances and mixtures used in workplaces. It’s worth noting that OSHA’s HazCom Standard refers to the GHS safety data sheets as material safety data sheets, or MSDS. They are an informational source about hazards and include safety precautions. They also assist employers in developing active programs for worker protection measures and training that are specific to the workplace and in considering the necessary measures for protecting the environment.
One of the major changes to the Hazard Communication Standard is the 16-section format of safety data sheets. The information in a safety data sheet must appear in this order:
- Hazard(s) identification
- Composition/information on ingredients
- First-aid measures
- Fire-fighting measures
- Accidental release measures
- Handling and storage
- Exposure controls/personal protection
- Physical and chemical properties
- Stability and reactivity
- Toxicological information
- Ecological information
- Disposal considerations
- Transport information
- Regulatory information
- Other information
HazCom Label Requirements
The HCS requires chemical manufacturers, importers, and distributors to label each container of hazardous chemicals leaving the workplace. These labels must include a product identifier, signal word, hazard statement(s), precautionary statement(s), and pictogram(s) in addition to the name, address, and telephone number of the chemical manufacturer, importer, or other responsible party.
One of the most significant changes to HazCom labels after alignment with the GHS is the pictograms OSHA adopted to improve worker safety and health. The pictograms themselves are graphic symbols that communicate specific information about chemical hazards. To be compliant, the pictogram must include a red square frame set at a point with a black hazard symbol on a white background that is wide enough to be clearly visible. Please note, square red frames set at a point must contain a hazard symbol to be permitted on the label; without the hazard symbol, the graphic cannot be considered a compliant pictogram.
The GHS includes a total of nine pictograms, but OSHA enforces only eight because they do not regulate the environmental impacts of chemicals. However, the environment pictogram may appear on a label as supplemental information. The eight pictograms OSHA does regulate include health hazard, flame, exclamation mark, gas cylinder, corrosion, exploding bomb, flame over circle, and skull and crossbones. The labels must be legible, printed in English, and prominently displayed. Furthermore, employers are responsible for maintaining labels on containers including tanks, totes, and drums.
The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is a set of guidelines for identifying and classifying hazards associated with various substances. Most importantly, the GHS standardized this classification globally (as its name suggests), which allows for better collaboration and improved safety within the global supply chain. Here’s an overview of the essentials you should know about GHS.
A Definition of the Globally Harmonized System
The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals was developed by an international team of hazard communication experts to establish a standard set of rules for classifying hazards. GHS defines and classifies chemical product hazards and communicates health and safety information on labels and safety data sheets. GHS also establishes the format and content for labels and safety data sheets to be used globally.
The Benefits of GHS
The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals was necessary for resolving the various classification systems utilized around the world. Governments needed a standard system like GHS because of the expense involved in regulating and enforcing multiple classification and labeling systems, and companies needed a standard system to save the costs of complying with those multiple systems. Government agencies and companies also needed a standard classification and labeling system to make it easier for workers to understand the hazards of the chemicals and products with which they work. Since the implementation of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, these organizations have realized several benefits including:
- Regulatory efficiency
- Facilitated trade
- Ease of compliance
- Reduced costs
- Improved, consistent hazard information
- The safe transport, handling, and use of chemicals
- Improved emergency response to chemical incidents
- Reduced need for animal testing
OSHA and the GHS
The United Nations (UN) adopted the GHS in 2003. The GHS specifies criteria for classifying health, physical, and environmental hazards in addition to specifying the information that must be included on hazard chemical labels and safety data sheets. In 2012, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) revised its Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) to align with the GHS. As a result, U.S. employees gained the right to know which chemical hazards they were exposed to in addition to the right to understand them.
OSHA set deadlines for various steps toward full alignment with the GHS. By December 2013, employers must have trained employees in reading GHS formatted labels and safety data sheets. By June 2015, chemical manufacturers and distributors had to complete hazard reclassification and produce GHS-compliant labels and safety data sheets. Distributors also had an additional six months to complete shipping of old inventory by June 2015. By December 2015, distributors had to fully comply with GHS requirements, as the grace period for old inventory shipments came to an end. By June 1, 2016, OSHA expected full alignment with GHS. Employers must be in full compliance with the revised HCS, and their employees had to be completely trained in the new hazards and revisions to the workplace hazard communication program.
Challenges with the GHS
After OSHA aligned with the GHS, companies faced significant changes in hazard classification, labels, safety data sheets, and training practices. They also incurred additional expenses to reclassify chemicals, rewrite safety data sheets, train workers on the new hazards and GHS formats, and print labels in color. However, organizations realized savings by needing only to comply with one system of classification and labeling. One of the most significant benefits of aligning the HCS to the GHS was improved worker safety, as fewer peopled died or were injured annually as a result of working with chemicals and products featuring the new labels.
GHS Labels and Pictograms
One of the most significant impacts of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals is the change to hazardous chemical labels. GHS labels must contain six pieces of information: the material supplier’s name, address, and telephone number; product identifier; signal word; hazard statements; precautionary statements; and pictograms. GHS labels are standardized and must contain specific information as assigned to each hazard category. Manufacturers and distributors first must classify a hazard and then communicate its corresponding signal word, hazard statements, precautionary statements, and pictograms.
GHS pictograms are standardized symbols that quickly communicate the type(s) of hazards materials present to handlers. The pictograms must be framed within a red square frame set on point. The image is a black symbol on a white background. There are nine GHS pictograms in all: health hazard, flame, exclamation mark, gas cylinder, corrosion, exploding bomb, flame over circle, environment, and skull and crossbones. It is worth noting that the environment pictogram is not mandatory because OSHA does not regulate aquatic toxicity.
Inspection tags are useful tools that help to facilitate and ensure that proper inspection procedures are followed for equipment such as boilers, industrial pressure vessels, and valves. Inspection tags can be used to inform employees when inspection was last conducted on a part or piece of equipment, offering confidence that the equipment is in safe and working order.
Inspection tags can also indicate when a part or piece of equipment is scheduled for maintenance or repairs and can also be used to indicate the status of a current maintenance procedure that’s in-process. Finally, they can be used to communicate hazards and cautions in the workplace, such as denoting equipment that must be inspected prior to operation. And regular inspections aren’t only useful for safety; regular inspections, testing, and repair of leaking pressure safety valves, for instance, results in a cost savings for organizations, in addition to providing environmental benefits.
We’ve created this guide to provide a comprehensive understanding of inspection tags for boilers, industrial pressure vessels, valves, and other parts and equipment, outlining the information you need to know to ensure compliance with inspection requirements and appropriate equipment tags.
In this guide, we’ll discuss:
- Inspection Regulations
- Safety Valve Inspection in the Manufacturing Process
- Required Information for Inspection Tags
- Inspection Tag Types and Materials
- Other Inspection Tag Considerations
- Additional Resources on Inspection Tags and Requirements
Regulations pertaining to the inspection and maintenance of equipment such as boilers, pressure relief valves, and industrial pressure vessels are largely issued on the state and local levels. However, some federal agencies have issued guidance and standards in an effort to guide state and local entities in creating appropriate regulatory requirements. These federal agencies include:
- National Board Inspection Code
- American Society of Mechanical Engineers
- The National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors
- The U.S. Department of Defense (Unified Facilities Criteria or UFC)
- The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
- The American Petroleum Institute (API)
ASME issues standards on testing pressure relief devices and also offers accreditation for laboratories that test pressure relief devices. Additionally, ASME issues standards for the inspection, repair, and alteration of boilers as well as for various types of valves, such as flanged, threaded, and welding end valves.
The National Board Inspection Code, first published in 1946 as a guide for chief inspectors, is now an internationally recognized standard that’s been widely adopted across many jurisdictions in both the United States and Canada. NBIC is organized in four parts, each related to specific post-construction activities related to pressure-retaining items, including:
- Repairs and Alterations
- Pressure Relief Devices
The Pressure Relief Devices section is a new addition to the 2017 edition of NBIC, offering guidance on performing, verifying, and documenting the installation, inspection, and repair of pressure relief devices. Additionally, it includes information on pressure margins, recommended practices for repairing pressure relief devices, and details on test stand design.
The Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC), issued by the Department of Defense, offers guidance on the inspection and certification of boilers and unfired pressure vessels, covering the procedures necessary to determine the material condition of this equipment in order to ensure safe, reliable, and efficient operation. It also specifies the frequency of inspection and testing required, the specific items and components that must be tested or inspected, and the forms that must be used.
The National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors outlines the specific steps required in order to prepare a boiler or pressure vessel for inspection, as well as specific tests and inspection activities to be carried out by inspectors. The American Petroleum Institute issues several standards related to the testing and inspection (and related topics) of pressure relief valves and other equipment, including API Standard 527, Seal Tightness of Pressure Relief Valves, API Standard 620: Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-pressure Storage Tanks, and API Standard 526: Flanged Steel Pressure Relief Valves, among others.
According to OSHA, most pressure and storage vessels in use in the United States are designed and constructed in accordance with either ASME Code (or Section VIII of the ASME “Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code”) or with API Standard 620, which establishes rules for lower pressure vessels which are not covered by the ASME Code. Certification of these vessels can only be performed by trained inspectors with the proper qualifications for each code, and certification requires written tests and practical experience.
In addition to having a thorough understanding of federal guidelines and recommendations, inspectors must be aware of all state and local regulations pertaining to inspecting and maintaining these items.
Safety Valve Inspection in the Manufacturing Process
Pressure vessels must be certified during manufacturing and are required to be stamped with the proper codes issued by ASME. If a manufacturer is accredited by ASME for pressure vessels (under ASME Code Section VIII Div. 1), the manufacturer can stamp nameplates on vessels with the ASME “U” symbol.
Other pressure vessel stamps include U2, Alternative Rules Section VIII, Division 2 (Shop and /or Field) and U3, Manufacturing of High Pressure Vessels (Shop and /or Field). The “UV” symbol is designated by ASME for pressure relief valves.
The use of these stamps on pressure vessel nameplates provides important information regarding the certification of manufacturers. When a customer orders a pressure vessel from a certified manufacturer and stamp holder, the customer does not need to enlist a third-party inspector for the vessel, as the vessel is already inspected by an Authorized Inspector (AI) who has signed the vessel’s data report. Authorized Inspectors must be certified by the NBIC.
Note that a Quality Control System must be implemented in accordance with the ASME code quality control manual, with procedures prepared by the manufacturer. Inspection-for-Industry.com offers a useful Inspection and Test Plan for pressure safety valves that can aid in this process. The quality control system (for pressure relief valves, industrial pressure vessels, and boilers, as well as other parts and equipment) should include ongoing inspection and testing plans and procedures – all of which must be documented over time on inspection tags and inspection and testing reports. The inspection procedure is distinct for each equipment type, involving several observations and tests, with each inspection culminating with recording and maintaining the inspection and testing results.
Required Information for Inspection Tags
Inspection tags are designed for tracking inspection activities, providing equipment users with the added security of knowing that all parts and equipment have been inspected within an acceptable time frame and verified to be in safe, working order. Inspection tags should contain the following information:
- A description of the equipment or part, including the make and model number, if applicable
- Space for listing the inspections performed along with the date each inspection was performed
- Any applicable hazard or caution communications
- The type of inspection record (safety inspections, general inspection record, or an indicator of the equipment category, such as boiler inspection record or valve inspection record)
Some inspection tags come pre-marked with months and years for inspection record tracking over a specified number of years, such as four years. These tags can also communicate the specific inspection requirements to employees (such as equipment operators) or to auditors.
Inspection Tag Types and Materials
The most common inspection tags, such as those used for fire extinguishers, are constructed of thick card stock. Some have areas for writing dates and other information (such as inspector identification numbers) on the tag, while others have tear-off portions that are used to indicate that an inspection has been performed. While this is suitable for some applications, industrial equipment often exposes tags to hazardous conditions that can render paper-based tags unreadable.
Anodized aluminum, such as Metalphoto® photosensitive anodized aluminum, offers superior durability compared to paper-based tags and is increasingly utilized for inspection tags for parts and equipment that operate in hazardous environments. Options such as re-writable metal labels are especially well-suited for inspection purposes, offering the ability to write information on the label, wipe it clean with isopropyl alcohol, and rewrite information on the label repeatedly, allowing for years of repeated use.
Alternatively, label blanks may be used, which allow users to utilize their own engraving, stamping, or label marking processes to document required information. Variable information tags are another option, which are useful for a variety of applications including equipment tags, service tags, compliance and inspection labels, and more.
In addition to inspection tags intended for documenting the performance of periodic inspections and repairs, most equipment requiring inspections also requires the use of compliance tags for the permanent documentation of important processes or procedures, such as operating or maintenance instructions, inspection procedures, and other essential information. Compliance tags are also printed with the equipment manufacturer, serial or model number, date of manufacture, load rating, or electrical specifications, all of which is essential information for performing equipment inspections. Instructional labels are a similar option, documenting equipment maintenance requirements, operating instructions, or safety instructions.
Other inspection tag materials include vinyl, nylon, stainless steel, and some plastics. When selecting an inspection tag for equipment and parts such as industrial pressure vessels, valves, and boilers, consider the operating environment of the equipment and choose inspection tags constructed of durable materials that can withstand these conditions throughout the life of the asset – or at least for the duration of the tag’s usable life (e.g., four years for inspection tags with pre-printed dates designed to track inspections over a four-year period).
Other Inspection Tag Considerations
You should also consider the process and procedures your company has in place when equipment fails to pass inspection or repairs or maintenance are needed before the equipment can be operated safely. There are tags designed specifically for these uses, printed on red or yellow card stock to indicate that the equipment is awaiting repairs or maintenance and should not be operated until post-repair or post-maintenance inspection confirms that it can be operated safely.
Some testing procedures must be carried out in highly controlled environments, meaning the equipment must be taken out of service until testing is complete. Have procedures in place and appropriate signage and tags on hand to address such scenarios.
Additionally, consider the frequency requirements for inspections. Generally, parts and equipment with greater hazard potential require more frequent inspections, meaning boilers, industrial pressure vessels, and valves will require more frequent inspection and testing than other equipment that poses less risk to operators (or is less subject to malfunctions with slight changes in operating conditions). Inspection frequency also depends on factors such as service, which can alter the ideal inspection frequency even for parts that have a broadly accepted, general guideline of “at least every five years.” For this reason, inspection frequency should be established on an individual basis, within the context of manufacturer requirements and an analysis of the actual service the part or equipment is in.
You’ll also want to think about the types of inspections required. For example, pressure systems are subject to both external and internal inspections. You’ll need appropriate inspection tags for documenting the completion of both types of inspections, as well as a means to differentiate inspection types – in other words, it may not make sense to document both inspection types on the same tag without some clear indicator of which type of inspection was performed.
As an example, the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory notes the following minimum inspection intervals for pressure systems in a December 2015 report, denoting both internal and external minimum inspection intervals:
|Equipment Type||Inspection Type||Inspection Frequency|
|Heating boiler||External||3 years|
|Pressure vessel, corrosive service||External and internal||2 years|
|Pressure vessel, non-corrosive service||External||3 years|
|Vacuum vessel||External||5 years|
For pressure relief devices, the following minimum inspection frequencies are noted:
|Equipment Type||Inspection Frequency|
|Heating boiler||3 years|
|Pressure vessel, corrosive service||2 years|
|Pressure vessel, non-corrosive service||3 years|
|Vacuum vessel||5 years|
Ideally, an inspection tag will serve its purpose over the course of several years or more. In other words, an inspection tag with little space for documenting inspections will have a short lifespan for a part or piece of equipment that requires monthly inspections – meaning you’ll have to invest in replacement tags more often compared to inspection tags with a capacity for four or five years of documentation.
Documentation Requirements and Best Practices
Documenting inspections requires more than simply noting the date an inspection was performed on an inspection tag. In most cases, full inspection reports must be submitted to the custodian, who maintains all inspection reports for a minimum of five years. The custodian also forwards copies of all inspection reports received to the pressure systems program manager, who in turn adds the reports to the Pressure Systems Database. The same is true for all completed reports on repairs and maintenance.
The National Board Inspection Code offers several forms for reporting purposes:
- Form NB-5: Boiler or Pressure Vessel Data Report – First Internal Inspection
- Form NB-6: Boiler-Fired Pressure Vessel – Report of Inspection
- Form NB-7: Pressure Vessels – Report of Inspection
- Form NB-4: New Business or Discontinuance Used by Authorized Inspection Agencies
In addition to standard inspection reporting forms, the NBIC offers a variety of forms for other purposes including:
- Form NB-136: Replacement of Stamped Data
- Form NB-365: Boiler Installation Report
- Form NB-403: Report of Fitness for Service Assessment
Additional Resources on Inspection Tags and Requirements
For more information on inspection regulations, standards, and inspection tags and other best practices, visit the following resources:
- How Often Should You Repair or Replace Pressure Relief Valves?
- Relief Valve testing requirements
- Efficient periodic testing of safety relief valves
- Pressure Relief Devices: Design, Sizing, Construction, Inspection and Maintenance
- Pressure Vessels
- Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspection According to ASME
- Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alteration
- Introduction to Pressure Vessel Inspection: ANSI/API 510
- Guidelines for Pressure Vessel Safety Assessment
- ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
Inspection tags for boilers, industrial pressure vessels, and valves are just one component of overall quality control. To ensure regulatory compliance, inspection tags prove useful tools in ensuring that minimum inspection intervals are met and providing an audit trail of prior inspection and testing activities. Choosing the right inspection tags for your application will ensure that this vital documentation remains intact and readable throughout the lifespan of your assets.
Preventive maintenance for fleets is the best way to reduce – even avoid – vehicle breakdowns. Preventive maintenance is based on mileage, time, engine hours, or gallons of fuel used. When pre-defined thresholds are met, preventive maintenance plans trigger activities such as vehicle inspection, cleaning, testing, repairs, the replacement of parts, lubrication, and other ongoing vehicle maintenance activities.
When managing a fleet, vehicle availability is paramount. Preventive maintenance is useful for fleets, as performing maintenance tasks on a scheduled basis is preferable to pulling a vehicle from availability for unexpected breakdowns and repairs. Preventive maintenance can reduce long-term costs by extending the usable life of your vehicles, and additionally, it helps to ensure the safety of your vehicle operators on the road. Download our interactive Fleet Maintenance Planning Checklist now or continue reading for more details on how to implement a fleet preventive maintenance plan.
How to Implement a Fleet Preventive Maintenance Plan
1. What You Need to Implement a Fleet Preventive Maintenance Plan
You’ll need a few essential items for an effective fleet preventive maintenance plan, including:
- A checklist of all preventive maintenance activities to be performed during scheduled maintenance (this may differ for each class of vehicle)
- The service interval, or the frequency at which preventive maintenance will be performed on vehicles
- A process for drivers to submit written inspections
- A process for drivers to submit written complaints, such as when a vehicle breaks down or is exhibiting symptoms that could indicate a problem
- An automotive facility where inspections, maintenance, and repairs will take place
- A staff of automotive technicians qualified to perform inspections, maintenance activities, and repairs
- A record-keeping method, which consists either of written documentation or software
- A process for ordering parts and maintaining spare parts inventory
2. Establish a Baseline
Before implementing a PM program, you’ll need a clear picture of the current status of every vehicle in your fleet. That means a complete inspection with all available data documented, the maintenance history for the vehicle (if available), parts replaced, vendors, etc.
Every vehicle should have a current inspection and service record, as well as a baseline of current mileage, fluid levels, and any other available information.
3. Determine Maintenance Intervals
Determine how often preventive maintenance will be performed for each class of vehicle in your fleet. Maintenance schedules may be different for certain types of vehicles, and maintenance may be triggered by different factors depending on the type of vehicle. For instance, you might base preventive maintenance on mileage for standard gas-operated vehicles, but other vehicles, such as equipment used on-site, may have preventive maintenance triggered based on the number of engine hours. While there’s no real gold standard for the metrics that should be used to trigger preventive maintenance, you should decide on an interval and ensure that it’s consistently used across all fleet vehicles in a particular class.
Your preventive maintenance intervals may also depend on the operating conditions. For normal operating conditions, for instance, a standard interval may be used, but vehicles used in severe operating conditions may require more frequent preventive maintenance. Vehicles used by multiple drivers may have shorter intervals, as well as vehicles used in off-road conditions, vehicles used for towing, or vehicles subject to excessive idling, such as in inner-city congested traffic.
To successfully carry out preventive maintenance, you’ll need to determine the metrics to track for each vehicle, such as mileage, fuel usage, operating hours, or other metrics. Decide on the trigger that will prompt preventive maintenance activities, such as every 3,000 miles, every 1,000 operating hours, or another measurable data point.
4. Consider Fleet Maintenance Software
While you can manage fleet preventive maintenance manually, investing in a software solution can automate much of the oversight and management process for fleet maintenance. There are a variety of fleet maintenance software solutions available that will make your maintenance process much more efficient, and many of today’s software solutions are affordable for small fleets, as well.
Generating reports takes a fraction of the time when you rely on fleet maintenance software compared to manual methods – in most cases, you can generate reports in minutes rather than hours. Software also makes it simpler for your fleet operators to report on issues and submit required reports, such as basic inspections, after operating a vehicle. What’s more, automated data collection reduces the likelihood of human error, boosting overall accuracy and efficiency.
Look for useful features such as:
- Asset and vehicle tracking
- Cost tracking
- Licensing and registration tracking
- Purchase and work order tracking
- Client/operator request portal
- Insurance claims management
You should also consider mobile capabilities, integration with your existing fleet management tools, and cloud deployment (particularly for growing fleets that require a solution that scales). When comparing software solutions, look at the average fleet size managed with the software as well as the fleet size capacity the software is capable of handling.
Fleet maintenance software will allow you to set up alerts based on your pre-defined triggers, which will automatically notify your fleet manager or maintenance manager when a vehicle is due for preventive maintenance.
5. Develop a Preventive Maintenance Service Checklist
A service checklist should contain required inspections, other safety tasks, and preventive maintenance tasks, including:
- Changing engine oil and filters
- Transmission fluid
- Inspection of cooling and fuel systems
- Inspecting engine and transmission mounts
- Inspecting and changing (if necessary) drive shafts, CV joints, belts, and hoses
- General tune-ups
- Inspecting electrical system components
- Inspecting the brake system and replacing brake pads and rotors as needed
- Inspecting the steering and suspension system
- Inspecting tires, wheels, and rims
- Replacing tires in a timely fashion (including seasonal changes as appropriate)
- Inspecting the exhaust system
- Evaluating the condition of the undercarriage and frame
- Inspecting both interior and exterior lights
- Replacing the windshield wipers and filling windshield fluid
- Inspecting seat structures and seatbelts
- Checking for fluid leaks
- Addressing the auxiliary systems
Again, preventive maintenance activities may differ for each type or class of vehicle in your fleet. Some vehicles may require more robust inspections for compliance, while others may require more frequent parts or fluid replacement. Develop a checklist for each vehicle class and type in your fleet.
6. Develop Driver Inspection and Reporting Systems
Your vehicle operators are your first line of defense when it comes to fleet maintenance. Operators who use the vehicles regularly can often pick up on subtle signs and symptoms during operation that may not be obvious even to experienced automotive technicians during a routine inspection. Operators should be tasked with monitoring the following:
- Vehicle safety systems and parts, such as tires, windshield wipers, the braking system, horn, steering, etc.
- Vehicle operating behavior, such as rough idling, misfiring, screeching brakes, etc.
- Vehicle body and interior, such as mirrors, the exterior body, the condition of the seats, etc., including any damage to the glass, body, mirrors, or interior that occurs during use or is noticed upon taking control of the vehicle
- Miscellaneous items, such as the radio operation, heating and air conditioning malfunctions, etc.
Vehicle operators should be required to take note and report on any potential concerns noticed before, during, and after the use of a fleet vehicle. That means you’ll need to train your vehicle operators on proper inspection and reporting procedures.
7. Track Metrics and Monitor for Success
All new processes and procedures have room for improvement, and that’s why it’s imperative to establish key performance metrics and track results. For instance, you’ll want to keep track of how many times preventive maintenance is performed as well as unscheduled maintenance. Ideally, you’ll see a reduction in unscheduled maintenance, a key indicator that your fleet preventive maintenance plan is working.
You can also track vehicles throughout their lifespan, and over time, you’ll have clear data that indicates whether your maintenance plan is saving your company long-term costs. If you’re getting several more years out of your vehicles compared to the average vehicle lifespan prior to implementing a PM program, that’s another sure sign that you’re getting value from your program.
Finally, you’ll gain visibility into vehicle performance. Are certain vehicle classes experiencing unexpected breakdowns more than others? Are some vehicles requiring more frequent parts replacements and tune-ups? These insights can help you make more informed decisions when it’s time to invest in new vehicles, allowing you to invest in vehicles that prove to be more efficient and offer a greater lifetime value.
Implementing a fleet preventive maintenance plan is a multi-step process, but it’s actually quite simple. When you gather the necessary baseline information, choose the right software, and take the time to establish thorough policies and procedures, your preventive maintenance program will operate seamlessly. Well-managed preventive maintenance programs can add a substantial amount of savings to the company bottom line. Download our interactive Fleet Preventive Maintenance Planning Checklist for a step-by-step guide to setting up your fleet preventive maintenance plan.
Organizations with valuable physical assets and equipment cannot afford unexpected downtime due to malfunctions and breakdowns. When your equipment doesn’t work, your people can’t work, and your customers aren’t happy. The challenge is that managing warranties, maintenance records, and work orders for all of that equipment is a time-consuming and complicated process. The solution is preventive maintenance software that handles all of those details and more.
To help you keep your equipment up and running and prolong its life by taking proper care of it, you need to choose preventive maintenance software that meets your business needs. We’ve rounded up 50 of the top software solutions to get you on the path to preventive maintenance more quickly. Our top picks have earned high reviews from users and leading technology publications alike, offer the features you need to get your preventive maintenance program operating as efficiently as possible, and come from some of the most trusted software providers. Please note, we have listed our top 50 preventive maintenance software solutions here in alphabetical order; thus, they are not ranked or rated in any way.
4Site Asset Maintenance is a powerful computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) for predictive and preventive maintenance. From work order management to repairable spare management, 4Site Asset Maintenance has the features you need to keep your assets in their best shape.
- Unlimited equipment hierarchy
- Hotspot equipment navigation
- Overrun prevention
- Safety/lockout procedures
- Mobile work order, time sheet, and meter reading entry via hand-held computers
- Ensure reliable performance, extend asset life, and maximize asset availability
- Root cause analysis, multi-function backlog reporting, templated task instructions, and multiple triggers
Cost: Contact for a quote
SSG Insight has been providing CMMS solutions and insight to help businesses make intelligent decisions for 35 years. Their Agility software delivers insight into asset and maintenance performance and gives you the visibility you need into your assets to increase reliability and maximize uptime.
- Gain insight into your assets, their performance, and their costs
- Schedule work orders and service requests for planned and reactive work to your team
- Reduce breakdowns and downtime
- Reduce your maintenance paperwork
- Track the history of assets accurately
- Choose Agility Mobile Solutions to bring Agility to your mobile device to enable you to react to situations any time, anywhere
Cost: Contact for a quote
Smartware Group has teamed with Dude Solutions and continues to deliver Bigfoot CMMS, a preventive maintenance management software that empowers you to manage assets proactively. You are in control when you use Bigfoot CMMS because it allows you to schedule your preventive maintenance using a calendar-based approach or meter reading entries or a combination of the two.
- View PMs on a daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, or annual basis
- Drag-and-drop functionality
- Manage meter readings with any numerical value
- Alter PM schedules by shifting dates and times to account for staff and priorities
- Set future schedules at a glance and overlay corrective maintenance work orders as needed
- Use instructions from a library of pre-defined steps or set detailed procedures, documents, pictures videos, and more
Cost: Contact for a quote
Building Engines delivers SaaS-based web and mobile preventive maintenance tools to help your business standardize tasks and schedules, access equipment data, and complete tasks from the field. This software solution helps you increase equipment longevity and includes all the features and tools you need to plan, schedule, and complete PM tasks while streamlining the process for tracking service and repairs and notifying team members by accurately forecasting future equipment failures.
- Easy to set up
- Pre-populated with the General Services Administration (GSA) industry standard maintenance tasks and schedules
- Mobile app enables techs to access equipment information and complete tasks from the field with or without an internet connection
Cost: Contact for a quote
CHAMPS Software has been solving enterprise-level problems with software solutions for more than 40 years. They offer CHAMPS EAM Web, a solution for optimizing asset performance and prolonging equipment life via preventive maintenance.
- Improve asset availability to generate higher, more consistent revenue
- Lower costs for maintenance labor, parts, and service contracts
- Improve regulatory compliance by reducing incidents and responding more quickly
- Make informed decisions regarding asset maintenance, repair, and replacement
- Manage physical and human assets with integrated systems and work processes
- Analyze and act on information including maintenance histories, performance, operations, and testing throughout each piece of equipment’s lifecycle
Cost: Contact for a quote
COAST Systems deliver global software solutions for operational excellence. Users improve asset reliability and availability and increase productivity while decreasing downtime and overtime with COAST Systems CMMS.
- Cost-effective and reliable
- Connects maintenance and engineering teams with management teams in real time
- Gives employees access to live information from nearly any platform, including smartphones and tablets
- Hosted in the cloud so you can access information using any device from any location
Cost: Contact for a quote
COGZ CMMS Maintenance Work Order Software is a preventive maintenance software solution helps you manage your entire routine to increase facility uptime. Keep machinery, vehicles, systems, and equipment up and running with COGZ while ensuring maintenance is done frequently and routinely with the right resources.
- No preventive maintenance training required
- Low-cost software that reduces repair costs and overall operation costs by avoiding waster labor
- Uniform preventive maintenance forms for entering information
- Complete preventive maintenance audits accurately with several reports available
- Organize and maintain your equipment routine schedules and recurring equipment tasks
- Easily change your routines within the program and rest assured your work orders reflect your changing specifications
Cost: Contact for a quote
Corrigo Incorporated provides a leading technology platform for facilities and field service management. Their Facilities Asset Management and Asset Optimization solution delivers the insight you need to optimize repair and replace decisions for sound capital planning.
- Automate repair and service processes
- Delivers insight into what drives your costs and outcomes
- Captures asset-level condition information including warranty status and work order history
- Track assets under warranty and apply all relevant service requests automatically; technicians receive automatic alerts when maintenance should be performed
- Stay up to date with preventive maintenance and get insights into operational uptime, scheduled downtime, and operational interruptions so you can make informed decisions
Cost: Contact for a quote
CWorks CMMS is a preventive maintenance software solution that helps users complete PM on time. Easily review and edit tasks with scheduling conflicts or duplicate or missing information to make your preventive maintenance as effective and efficient as possible with CWorks.
- Unlimited user site licenses
- Individualized schedules for each piece of equipment
- Extensive scheduling options
- Attach job photos, videos, and documents to show PM history
- Time-based triggers and meter-based triggers
- Easily generate work orders by date range
Cost: CWorks GO Premium: $90/site/month annual billing – Includes Android mobile application for viewing and closing work orders on smartphones, one year of support, and a site license with unlimited users/site
Dematic North America, a global leader of intelligent warehouse logistics and materials handling solutions, offers Dematic Sprocket. This software solution helps users maximize productivity and reliability of their operations and advance maintenance requirements by integrating them into a system that returns cost through reduced breakdowns and extended asset life.
- Preventive, predictive, and condition maintenance that allows you to become proactive
- Mobile maintenance for working smarter and faster
- Groups multiple assets by classification to minimize data work
- All preventive maintenance schedules and tasking are in one place
- Automatic PM generation puts assets on a defined schedule and creates maintenance work orders
- Forecasting and load balancing reports and customized route creation to optimize servicing multiple assets in one area
Cost: FREE trial available; Contact for a quote
Dude Solutions offers work order and maintenance management software to ensure your operations have more efficient workflows, total asset awareness, mobile capabilities, and more. Predictive, efficient, and insightful, Dude Solutions Maintenance Management solution gives you a better way to work.
- Manage work orders, assets, and maintenance activity in one place
- Mobile CMMS tools
- Predict problems with your equipment before they occur
- Track trends with data on conditions, work history, and more
- Create automate workflows for maintenance alerts and scheduling in real time
Cost: Contact for a quote
eMaint provides asset management for a connected world. Their maintenance management software is top rated and improves how users manage maintenance operations, resources, equipment, and compliance.
- Configurable so you can work the way you need to without being constrained by your maintenance management system
- Scalable to grow with your business
- Generate calendar and/or meter-based PMs and set PM schedules to avoid failures and reduce costs
- Planned maintenance task generation and maintenance schedules
- Streamlined method for conducting inspections and enabling techs to record inspections completions quickly and accurately
Cost: FREE trial available; Contact for a quote
Engica is a world-leading work control solution provider covering work management, safety, risk management, maintenance, materials, and more. Their preventive maintenance software is available for facilities of any size and helps users reduce costs and improve productivity.
- Capture, define, and track equipment characteristics and work-related information
- Specify and assign prescriptive tasks to establish preventive schedules with complete history audits
- Configurable workflow engine with powerful interactive scheduling tools for balancing work priorities, safety, labor, spares, and resources that coordinate with planned and forced downtime
Cost: Contact for a quote
eWorkOrders is a highly rated web-based CMMS that simplifies preventive maintenance and works on all types of devices. Known for being user-friendly, this software solution is affordable and powerful and includes a planned/preventive maintenance module that enables you to schedule regularly performed tasks.
- Schedule repetitive requests and complete projects involving multiple service providers
- Prolong the life of key assets and equipment
- Easily schedule future activities and allocate appropriate resources as needed
Cost: Contact for a quote
FMXpress is user-friendly, cloud-based software that helps facilities managers effectively track work orders, schedule resources, and plan maintenance. This CMMS is appropriate for schools, property management, government, religious organizations, manufacturing, and other industries that need to submit, track, and manage requests, events, and assets with the FMX Planned Maintenance Module.
- Eliminate downtime and unnecessary expenses with preventive maintenance
- Automatically plan maintenance tasks and issue reminders to guarantee no equipment gets overlooked
- Keep up to date with required inspections and audits
- Prioritize maintenance tasks based on need
- View each task your team members are working on
- Store vital documents and other information
- Track time and money spent
Cost: FREE trial available; Contact for a quote
FacilityONE preventive maintenance software ensures “facility fitness for life expectancy.” With this software solution, users develop streamlined PM programs that include regularly scheduled check-up task lists and plans for corrective maintenance care.
- Simplifies user processes with the UNITY interface, powered by SMARPRINT Technology to deploy the preventive maintenance solution throughout your facility
- Enables facilities of all sizes to efficiently and cost-effectively generate a schedule to maintain all equipment
- Schedule any facility asset or equipment into the system to give operations and management control over the life and quality of the facility itself
Cost: Contact for a quote
CyberMetrics Corp offers CMMS and EAM software solutions that are affordable and scalable yet also easy to implement, manage, and use. Their FaciliWorks solution gives you access through a mobile-friendly interface so you can update preventive maintenance and work orders records while work is being performed.
- Preventive maintenance schedule is included in an asset record entered into FaciliWorks
- Meter-based or date-based schedules
- Sends notifications to specified team members alerting them that equipment is due for maintenance
- Interactive scheduling calendar
- Tracks preventive maintenance elements including date-based or meter-based schedules, labor, contracts, parts, tools, variables, procedures, checklists, and signatures
Cost: Contact for a quote
A global software company helping organizations achieve superior performance by transforming how they manage physical resources, Accruent offers the facility and asset management solution FAMIS. With FAMIS, users take control of equipment and take a proactive approach to preventing safety issues, downtime, and emergency repairs.
- Automate preventive, corrective, and predictive maintenance processes
- Reduce the time it takes to complete work requests
- Improve efficiency
- Minimize manual data entry
Cost: Contact for a quote
Fiix is a cloud-based software that organizes, tracks, and schedules your maintenance needs. The Fiix dashboard visualizes maintenance data and analytics and helps you make better preventive maintenance decisions.
- Cloud-based maintenance and asset management software with a fully customizable, interactive dashboard
- Create preventive and scheduled maintenance work orders and automatically generate them based on date, time, event, alarms, or meter readings
- Create maintenance work orders from templates or trigger them by any combination of data
- Create reusable tasks and schedules for preventive maintenance
- Mobile CMMS provides complete access to all the Fiix tools from your favorite device; scan asset barcodes or QR codes to get the asset record and create a work order on location
Cost: Contact for a quote
From Innovative Maintenance Systems, Fleet Maintenance Pro is a preventive maintenance software solution for anyone responsible for a fleet of vehicles. Stay on top of issues and prevent problems before they occur with Fleet Maintenance Pro.
- Easily conduct regular inspections of your fleet
- Quickly set up a well-structured preventive maintenance schedule
- Track preventive and repair maintenance on vehicles and equipment
- Manage an unlimited number of vehicles
- Organize fleet by location, department, or type
- Save paperwork and let Fleet Management Pro track the year, make, model, mileage, vehicle identification number, purchase information, registration data, loan and lease information, and other details
Cost: Contact for a quote
FT Maintenance is a robust CMMS solution that is easy to use. It also automates maintenance tasks and connects users with powerful data for more intelligent maintenance management. When it comes to preventive maintenance, FTMaintenance enables teams to work smarter instead of harder by proactively addressing repairs, increasing equipment reliability, and reducing emergency occurrences.
- Automate regularly occurring work order creation, assignment, and distribution responsibilities
- Schedule preventive maintenance work orders using calendar date, run time, cycle count, or date of last preventive maintenance activities
- Assign tasks to occur at specific frequencies on a single PM work order
- Eliminate redundant data entry with multi-equipment work orders
- FTMaintenance Cloud Lite: $40/month/concurrent user with 12-month commitment – 500 assets
- FTMaintenance Cloud Lite+: $80/month/concurrent user with 12-month commitment – Unlimited assets
- FTMaintenance Cloud: $149/month/concurrent user – Unlimited assets
HCSS provides construction estimating, time card and job management, equipment maintenance, and safety software. Their Equipment360 solution is a comprehensive equipment and fleet management system that transforms your organization into a proactive operation.
- Integrated equipment maintenance software so you can run a proactive shop
- Provide mechanics with the information they need to effectively maintain your fleet and equipment
- Incase uptime with a standardized preventive maintenance program utilizing built-in templates and automated meter reading
- Schedule preventive maintenance based on alerts and meter readings to help equipment run better and longer
- Set alerts for maintenance, field requests, due dates, inventory reorder levels, and expiring skills to manage your fleet, equipment, and shop more easily
Cost: Contact for a quote
Hippo CMMS is a powerful, user-friendly, web-based maintenance management solution. Hippo’s preventive maintenance management software helps you increase the longevity of your equipment and assets and easily store an access information from ID tags to warranty information.
- Stores all asset and equipment information including ID tags, O&M manuals, and warranty information
- Flexible scheduling options tailored to your operation’s needs
- Establish a regular preventive maintenance scheduling protocol with standardized work order templates, an easy to follow task checklist, and triggers based on your schedule
- Create work order reports based on a calendar schedule or meter-based readings
- For all types of equipment and facilities across a range of industries
Cost: FREE trial available for 30 days
- Hippo Lite: $45/month/user paid monthly or $55/CAD paid monthly – Minimum of 3 users, work order management, preventive maintenance, asset/equipment management, maintenance reports, document management, single facility/location
- Hip Pro: Starts at $165/month or $200/CAD paid monthly – Unlimited users, maintenance request portal, work order management, preventive maintenance, 3 Hippo Mobile users, document management, asset/equipment management, inventory/spare parts management, barcode/QR code scanning, and more
- Hip Pro Plus: Starts at $195/month or $240/CAD paid monthly – All Hip Pro plan features plus equipment/asset transfer from facility to facility, active directory integration with single sign on, custom defined user interface, and fleet maintenance module
I’mOnIt! is an equipment and facilities maintenance and compliance system. Schedule, track, and report maintenance, compliance and repair jobs, and more with this affordable CMMS and facilities maintenance software.
- Attach manuals, diagrams, forms, or images to any work order for easy reference with preventive maintenance tasks
- Easily record and report parts usage, repair costs, and work history
- Export preventive maintenance data to Excel spreadsheets for analysis
- Work Request Web Portal for preventive maintenance, repair planning, facilities tasks, and compliance scheduling
Cost: FREE trial available for 30 days; $499/single user
DPSI provides industry-leading CMMS software for maintenance management professionals. Their iMaint EAM solution maximizes equipment uptime and helps organizations stay on top of preventive maintenance.
- Centralizes data and automates maintenance management tasks to save time and operating costs
- Monitor maintenance activities and make ongoing improvements to your preventive maintenance processes
- Developed specifically for maintenance and suitable for organizations of any size
- Updated regularly to keep pace with your organization’s needs
- Access from the web or a mobile device
Cost: FREE trial available; Contact for a quote
Interal develops and implements computerized maintenance, inventory, and production software solutions tailored to the needs and requirements of 21st-century companies. Their maintenance solution is powerful and includes all the systematic, conditional, and provisional tools required for preventive maintenance.
- Manage preventive maintenance templates to issue work orders in advance
- Maintenance planning table features a simple interface with drag-and-drop functionality
- Use the maintenance board to consult work order files, equipment files, and preventive maintenance files while modifying, canceling, postponing, or advancing maintenance work orders
Cost: Contact for a quote
KeepTrak Corporation offers preventive maintenance software for facility maintenance, equipment maintenance, ands site maintenance. Users easily keep up with work requests, work orders, parts inventory, and purchase orders using this software solution that is easy to learn and use.
- Perform maintenance tasks proactively instead of reactively to save time and money
- Ensure compliance with regulatory requirements from OSHA, USDA, FDA, EPA, and ISO 9000, among others
- Planning and scheduling tools
- PM Custom Reporting with the custom report builder
- Uncover PM history with reports showing who did the work, when, which parts were used, notes from the job, etc.
- Purchase only the modules you need and add others later if you wish
- Designed with users in mind
Cost: FREE trial available for 30 days
- Operations Modules
- Preventive Maintenance Module: $199
- Maintenance Requests and Logs: $199
- Parts Inventory: $199
- Number of Computers
- 1 Computer: FREE
- 2-3 Computers (single database): $699
- Unlimited Computers (single database): $1,399
- Users & Permissions: $399
Limble CMMS is designed by technicians for technicians and is a mobile, modern, easy-to-use preventive software solution. With Limble CMMS, you can see everything in one place so you can configure asset information, manage work orders, set schedules, get reports, view KPIs and logs, and change settings all from one screen.
- Track any piece of information that directly relates to your asset or equipment
- Create custom fields
- Gain insights at a glance and determine whether there is an issue affecting the balance of preventive work and unplanned work
- Flexible preventive maintenance system allows you to use whatever combination of maintenance strategies your facilities require
Cost: FREE trial available for 30 days
- By Asset: $1/asset/month – Unlimited users, preventive maintenance, work orders, asset management, mobile app, parts management, automated work requests, and multi location management
- Starter: $25/user/month – Unlimited assets, preventive maintenance, work orders, asset management, mobile app, parts management, automated work requests, and single location management
- Professional: $35/user/month – Unlimited assets, preventive maintenance, work orders, asset management, mobile app, parts management, automated work requests, and multi location management
- Enterprise: $65/user/month – Unlimited assets and includes all Professional plan features plus implementation specialist, enterprise support, and multi location management
A web-hosted facility maintenance software, Maintenance Care is an easy-to-use CMMS for managing work orders, preventive maintenance, and all of your assets and equipment. Users improve equipment and asset performance and longevity through sound preventive maintenance scheduling with Maintenance Care.
- Automatic preventive maintenance scheduling
- Review ongoing task scheduling routines and make changes easily to minimize downtime and increase productivity
- Flexible software solution allows you quickly and easily to change task frequency, level of importance, and assignment
- Easy preventive scheduling
- Isolate preventive tasks requiring special attention and create a comprehensive report to maintain facility standards for compliance
- Automatically assign task scheduling to one of your staff members
- Automatically include special files and documents to any PM tank for easy access
- Free Edition: FREE – Instant access, user guide support, online work order page, basic task list manager, and basic reporting
- Work Order Edition: $75/month – Unlimited users, advanced work order features, customer support included, multi facility available, advanced work order page, advanced task list manager, task assignment, priority settings, task duration, document management, and more
- Enterprise Edition: Contact for a quote – All Work Order Edition plan features plus preventive maintenance scheduling, asset management tracking, part and inventory, advanced reporting and dashboards, and more
Maintenance Connection is a leader in maintenance and facility management software. They provide browser-based CMMS to organizations around the globe with a blend of top-notch technology and personalized service.
- Easily manage assets, track work orders, and schedule preventive maintenance
- Reduce unexpected breakdowns and improve system reliability when you implement a proactive, preventive maintenance program
- Work order management, enterprise asset management, equipment inventory management, preventive maintenance, predictive maintenance, multi-site CMMS, and more
Cost: Contact for a quote
31. Maintenance Pro
Maintenance Pro is a CMMS software that is flexible and easy to use. Its preventive maintenance features enable you to configure tasks in a number of ways and delivers automated preventive maintenance alerts so you can stay on top of your equipment maintenance.
- Automated and color-coded preventive maintenance alerts automatically display upon program startup
- Includes a brand range of preventive maintenance services that are defined for you
- Easily customize the list of services or create your own maintenance schedules based on your equipment’s tracking requirements
Cost: Pricing is a one-time charge with no annual license fee
- Standard: $499, Single User – Preventive maintenance tracking, repair tracking, maintenance notifications, maintenance history, vendor management, and more
- Deluxe: $749, Single User – All Standard plan features plus email notification, maintenance calendar, photos and attachments, usage tracking, graphing, and enhanced reporting
- Pro: $1,249 Single User – All Deluxe plan features plus work order management, inventory tracking, auto part selection, employee labor tracking, purchase orders, downtime analysis, customer and invoice management, multiple location support, barcoding, and SQL server compatibility
Ashcom Technologies has been providing innovative CMMS solutions for more than 30 years. Today, they help clients gain a competitive edge when they implement proactive strategies and technologies like MaintiMizer Web Edition for preventive maintenance.
- Organized into modules, including preventive maintenance/equipment, work order, inventory, vendor/purchase order, and timecard
- Easy to use with drop-down menus, look-up fields, and calendars
- Weekly schedule workup page shows which work orders have been scheduled for the upcoming week to make scheduling maintenance staff efficient and effective
- Easily generate reports and create your own custom reports
Cost: Contact for a quote
MaintSmart CMMS is a solution for equipment maintenance, work orders, preventive maintenance, and equipment failure analysis. Their preventive maintenance software helps you maximize the life and reliability of your equipment and saves production time.
- Link spare parts to PMs
- Link preventive maintenance tasks to work orders
- Uses reliability analysis Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) to guide maintenance managers setting preventive maintenance task intervals
- Simple, list-based preventive maintenance scree in addition to a full-featured work order screen
- Close thousands of PMs at once using default average labor hours and due date
Cost: Contact for a quote
ManagerPlus maintenance software is easy to use and helps companies increase their return on investment (ROI) while decreasing their costs of operation. This maintenance management solution is simple and powerful and links asset management and tracking, work order management, preventive maintenance scheduling, inventory, and purchasing functions together for quick, easy viewing and decision-making.
- Scalable and tailored to your company’s operational requirements
- Desktop or cloud-based solutions that improve productivity and efficiency via organized record, work orders, purchase orders, and more
- Store all your assets, work orders, purchase orders, schedules, warranties, and inventory in one place
Cost: Contact for a quote
Navaltik Management owns ManWinWin Software and specializes in developing maintenance management software. ManWinWin is in its fifth generation and enables users to manage customers’ equipment from a centralized, user-friendly framework.
- User-friendly solution that you can quickly and easily implement
- 100% dedicated support team and help desk
- Manage equipment, technical forms, and documents in addition to preventive maintenance
- Plan with automatic alerts using the drag-and-drop style calendar
- Full maintenance history per equipment, by location, cost center, etc.
MAPCON Technologies has been developing maintenance management software for industry and facilities for 35 years. Their CMMS solution includes an extensive list of powerful features and essential capabilities.
- Multi-site enterprise CMMS
- CMMS is available on demand as a SaaS solution or running on your server
- Employ project management, manage safety procedures, and engage in work order planning while utilizing ISO, QS, and JCO audit controls
- Optional add-ons, extensions, and modules with optional customizations to enhance your maintenance management processes
Cost: FREE trial available
- Basic (LITE) CMMS Software: $30/month On-Demand SaaS or $495/purchase to run on your server – Robust preventive maintenance and work order management solution designed for maintenance mangers who want to keep things simple and affordable
- Advanced (Pro) CMMS Software: Contact for a quote – Comprehensive CMMS package with project management, safety procedure management, work order planning, and ISO, QS, and JCO audit controls
Maxpanda CMMS is preventive maintenance software that companies use to keep their equipment in working order and to extend its life. Avoid failed equipment by prevuing failure before it occurs with Maxpanda.
- Preserve and restore equipment reliability by replacing worn components before they fail
- Workers can record equipment deterioration and then know whether to repair or replace worn parts before they cause system failure
- Define preventive maintenance at the task level
- Establish unlimited number of calendar-based PMs for each asset or location
- Built-in planning and scheduling tools
- Maintenance Calendar for viewing current and future preventive maintenance activities at a glance
Cost: FREE trial available for 15 days
- Basic: $29/month – Unlimited user accounts, generate 50 work orders/month, single-site management, and does not include preventive management
- Starter: $69/month or $708/yearly – Unlimited user accounts, generate 50 work orders/month, multisite management for up to 5 sites, preventive scheduling, and more
- Enhanced: $99/month or $1068 yearly – Unlimited user accounts, generate 150 work orders/month, multi-site management for up to 15 sites, preventive scheduling, and more
- Standard: $199/month or $2,268 yearly – Unlimited user accounts, generate 350 work orders/month, multi-site management for up to 25 sites, preventive scheduling, and more
- Pro: $299/month or $3,468 yearly – Unlimited user accounts, generate 500 work orders/month, multi-site management for up to 50 sites, preventive scheduling, and more
- Enterprise: $399/month or $4,668 yearly – Unlimited user accounts, generate unlimited work orders/month, multi-site management for up to 100 sites, preventive scheduling, and more
Megamation Systems has been providing maintenance management solutions for more than 30 years. Their DirectLine SaaS solution is an all-inclusive, fully supported maintenance management suite that includes feature-rich work orders, customizable reports, and much more for all of your preventive maintenance needs.
- Unlimited live support and training 18 hours a day on weekdays and 12 hours daily on weekends
- Delivered with the renowned Citrix thin-client for faster, more stable connections and data security
- Customized to suit your needs
- Ideal for manufacturing, universities and colleges, healthcare, schools, food and beverage, and facilities
Cost: Contact for a quote
MEX Maintenance software is trusted by more than 12,000 users around the globe. MEX simplifies life for maintenance managers and service technicians by providing comprehensive asset management, daily maintenance management, automatic ordering, and reports.
- Preventive maintenance work orders with time-based or usage-based frequencies schedules
- Maintenance activities, history, documents, parts, and more are organized hierarchically
- Request, track, and record maintenance work detailing tasks to be performed, parts, safety notes, and more
Cost: FREE trial available for 30 days; Contact for a quote
MicroMain has been redefining maintenance and facility operations since 1991 by combining their Building Technology with a consistent focus on customer experience. Their maintenance management software, available on-premise or hosted, helps customers effectively manage operations.
- Preventive maintenance with forecasting
- Actionable business intelligence via advanced analytics
- Maximize resource allocation and productivity
- Service requests and auto-scheduler for work orders
Cost: Contact for a quote
MPulse Software is a leading provider of CMMS and EAM software solutions for maintenance, repair, and operations (MRO) professionals and facility managers. Their MPulse 8 CMMS is fast, full-featured, and innovative enough to provide reliable scheduling, tracking, and reporting for equipment and facilities maintenance organizations.
- Scalable based on your organization’s size and the scope of your maintenance and preventive maintenance requirements
- Easy to use
- Asset and employee records, work orders, preventive maintenance scheduling, and more
- Preventive maintenance for scheduling and assigning detailed PM activities using time and meter-based scheduling
- Robust, powerful, graphic-based, customizable reports
- Available in Bronze, Silver, Gold, and Platinum Editions
Cost: Contact for a quote
The leading web-based facilities management software, NetFacilities empowers you to manage everything from work orders to preventive maintenance to inventory control. Take advantage of the mobile app to tackle or gain insight into your organization’s preventive maintenance activities from anywhere, any time.
- Fully functional preventive maintenance with MobileFacilities
- Track and manage scheduled and recurring asset and equipment maintenance on a secure centralized work hub
- Integrates with asset management, work orders, labor tracking, inventory and materials, inspections, vendor control, barcode scanning, and internal communication
- Tie preventive maintenance to an asset and specific schedule
- Provide specific steps for each maintenance event
Cost: Contact for a quote
NEXGEN combines a robust CMMS with advanced asset management planning tools. Gain improved operational efficiency, a complete awareness of asset and equipment performance, and powerful risk analysis for prioritizing maintenance tasks.
- Automate PM schedules and improve asset management
- Schedule repairs and preventive maintenance tasks
- Monitor work order progress in real time and ensure regulatory compliance
Cost: Contact for a quote
Planon, a global leader, offers real estate and facility management software. Their preventive maintenance solution allows for condition monitored maintenance and enables assets to communicate their true status in real time.
- Threshold values and preset parameters forecasts the type and timing of maintenance required
- Just-in-time maintenance minimizes costs and prevents asset failure
- Transition to a proactive maintenance operation rather than a reactive one
- Real-time access to work orders, documentation, and schedules for maintenance staff and field engineers
Cost: Contact for a quote
An industry-leading CMMS software provider for maintenance management professionals, DPSI offers PMC Preventive Maintenance. Simplify work order management, reduce parts inventory, and extend asset and equipment life with this software solution that has all the tools you need to become proactive with your preventive maintenance processes.
- Encompasses the full spectrum of maintenance activities to stay on top of preventive maintenance
- Complete work order generation, management, and reporting system that can handle an unlimited quantity of work orders
- Quickly review work orders for selected due dates
- Centralized purchasing system, extensive inventory control system, and comprehensive reports and graphs module
- Designed specifically for preventive maintenance and is easy for maintenance techs to learn and use
Cost: FREE trial available for 30 days; Contact for a quote
PMXpert software is an easy-to-use preventive maintenance solution. Run your PM processes at peak efficiency and minimize downtime, reduce costs, and make your job easier with PMXPert.
- Complete, affordable, easy-to-use solution for preventive maintenance
- Mix and match modules to create a custom CMMS and preventive maintenance management software solution that is tailored to your business’ unique needs
- Flexible system adapts to any industry
- Automatically schedules services according to the time and meter cycle
- Easily generate detailed work orders with one click
Cost: FREE trial available for 30 days; Contact for a quote
ServiceChannel is used by national facilities managers in the retail, restaurant, commercial, and industrial sectors to manage data for more than 220,000 locations. Users manage repair and maintenance activities from a single dashboard with ServiceChannel’s Planned Maintenance Manager.
- Ensures all equipment gets the scheduled services needed
- Set up site-specific frequencies via the web interface or file upload
- Automatically generate work orders on the right day to the appropriate service provider
- Avoid failing to schedule routine maintenance by tracking which maintenance tasks need to be performed and at what frequency
Cost: Contact for a quote
ServiceMax is an innovative company working to transform service organizations. Their equipment preventive maintenance software solution gives techs access to every manual on hand to help them find other opportunities create additional preventive maintenance work orders.
- Pure cloud field service company
- Techs use tablets to get directions for field preventive maintenance tasks
- Find records and manage everything for the task while on the job with mobile access to a knowledge base including manuals, videos, and social collaboration technology
Cost: Contact for a quote
TabWare is a leading CMMS/EAM solution for oil and gas, manufacturing, chemicals, and food and beverage. Effectively track and control your equipment, preventive maintenance, spare parts inventory, and purchasing activities with TabWare.
- Maximize asset performance and control costs
- Available as a cloud computing solution (SaaS) to reduce iT cost and overhead, onsite for companies that want TabWare on their own servers, and online for faster adoption
- Detect equipment defects and issues early to conduct preventive maintenance
- Alarm or fault conditions trigger automatic work order generation
- Effectively plan and schedule preventive maintenance while allocating resources appropriately
Cost: Contact for a quote
UpKeep Maintenance is a mobile maintenance management software that is user friendly and works on any platform in addition to being fully mobile. The leading group collaboration and maintenance application for facility management teams, UpKeep helps reduce downtime and allows you to get better insight via reports.
- Closely monitors maintenance
- Create preventive maintenance work orders on-the-go and get notifications when tasks are updated
- Backs up data daily and stores it securely in the cloud so you can access your business information from any device at any time
- Streamline communications for the team with varying access levels for administrators, technicians, overseers, and requesters
- Free: Unlimited number of users
- Starter: $24.99/month paid annually or $29.99/month paid monthly per technician or administrator each month
- Professional: $39.99/month paid annually or $47.99/month paid monthly per technician or administrator each month
- Enterprise: Contact for a quote
The Code of Federal Regulations Title 49 for Transportation, sometimes referred to as CFR Title 49, is one of 50 total United States CFR titles. Specifically, Title 49 sets forth the rules and regulations issued by the Departments of Transportation and Homeland Security regarding transportation and its related security. The unofficial version of the CFR is available online.
CFR Title 49 for Transportation includes 12 chapters involving various regulatory entities including: The U.S. Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Material Safety Administration, the Federal Railroad Administration, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, the U.S. Coast Guard, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the Federal Transit Administration, the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (AMTRAK), the National Transportation Safety Board, the Surface Transportation Board, the Research and Innovative Technology Administration, and the Transportation Security Administration. Because CFR Title 49 for Transportation encompasses parts 1 – 1699, it can be daunting to read and understand. We highlight the most pertinent information about the regulation for you, including:
- The Code of Federal Regulations Title 49 for Transportation at a Glance
- If You Move Goods in the U.S., You Must Comply with CFR Title 49
- CFR 49 Label Specifications
The Code of Federal Regulations Title 49 for Transportation at a Glance
It is in your best interests to read and understand all parts of the CFR Title 49 if you transport goods in the United States. We provide a short introduction to Title 49 here, to give you an overview of the regulations and what they mean for your organization.
The Code of Federal Regulations Title 49 for Transportation governs the domestic transportation of hazardous materials for all forms of transportation to, from, and within the United States. Title 49 includes nine volumes. Parts 100-185 of Title 49 relate to transporting hazardous materials, which are overseen by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration under the helm of the U.S. Department of Transportation.
Because CFR 49 addresses regulations and requirements for preparing, shipping, and handling dangerous goods, anyone handling them should read, understand, and comply with every element of Title 49. Some of the most critical components of CFR Title 49 include:
- Descriptions of hazardous materials by class
- The amount of hazardous materials permitted in specific containers in addition to the total volume allowed in each shipped package
- The types of packages and packaging required for the safe transport of hazardous materials
- Testing requirements for reaching specific performance standards
- Required documentation for shipping hazardous materials
- The markings and labels required on packaging and placards required by carriers
- Training and safety plan requirements
If You Move Goods in the U.S., You Must Comply with CFR Title 49
CFR Title 49 is word-heavy, at best. The most important thing to know about the regulations is that you must abide by them if you move goods in the U.S., because Title 49 encompasses regulations for domestic transportation. It especially is critical for you to be familiar with Title 49 and have the most up-to-date version of the regulations because they include stringent rules for transporting hazardous materials. You are subject to penalties for noncompliance if you are not informed about the latest requirements of CHR title 49. One of your responsibilities under CFR 49 is to use hazmat hazard shipping labels that comply with the guidelines.
If you are shipping in the U.S. by ground, you will need to concern yourself with parts 100-185 of CFR 49. These parts specifically outline the rules for shipping dangerous goods. Many shippers using internal U.S. waterways also use CFR 49. According to U.S. law, CFR 49 parts 100-185 take precedence over regulations found in international regulations. To comply with CFR 49 parts 100-185, make sure you and everyone involved in shipping have the specified mandatory training for shippers of dangerous goods. You should receive training for the type and level of expertise required for the dangerous goods you ship and the types of transportation you use to do so. Also, document your training because auditors will want to see these records.
Understand CFR 49 Label Specifications
If you are shipping dangerous goods, you need to know the CFR 49 label specifications, as detailed by 49 CFR 172.407. You should read the specifications and become familiar with the requirements to select transportation labels that are fully compliant. We highlight a few of the specifications below:
- Durability – Each label must be durable and weather-resistant, regardless of whether it is printed on a package or affixed to it. The label must be able to withstand 30 days of exposure to conditions that are common in transportation without deteriorating or having a substantial change in color.
- Design – Each label must contain the text, inner border, and symbol as shown in 49 CFR 172.411-172.448 as appropriate
- Size – Each label must be a diamond, or square set on a point, and at least 100 mm (3.9 inches) on each side. Each side must have a solid line inner border 5mm inside, measuring from the outside edge of the label to the outside of the solid line forming the inner border, and parallel to the edge. The solid line forming the inner border must be at least 2mm wide. Please note, the label dimensions and its features may be reduced proportionately if the size of the package deems it necessary to do so, as long as the symbol and other label elements remain clearly visible.
- Color – The background color of each label must be as specified in 49 CFR 172.411-172.448 as appropriate. Please note, black and any label color must be able to withstand a 72-hour fadeometer test without substantial change.
The Code of Federal Regulations Title 49 for Transportation is a lengthy set of regulations. However, you must comply with the regulations if you ship goods to, from, or within the United States. You especially should become familiar with CFR 49 parts 100-185 for transporting dangerous goods and know the label requirements to avoid penalties for failing to comply with the regulations.
Fleet monitoring is an essential process that empowers fleet managers to make better decisions. Fleet monitoring, when done properly, gives managers greater control over the fleet and results in lower vehicle operating costs and less wasted employee time. Effective fleet monitoring also provides real-time information that assists managers in making better decisions using accurate data. Overall, fleet monitoring best practices result in overall improved efficiency.
As with any business process, there are several schools of thought on fleet monitoring. Consistently following fleet monitoring best practices will enable your organization to ensure fast, effective fleet management, safe, productive vehicle use, a healthier bottom line, and improved customer satisfaction. That’s why we have rounded up four of the best fleet monitoring tips and best practices from industry leaders and authorities and share them here, for your convenience:
- Use a GPS Tracking System for Real-Time Visibility into Your Fleet
- Register Vehicle Assets in an Asset Management System
- Adopt a Consistent Maintenance Schedule and Plan for Preventive Maintenance
- Use the Most Relevant Metrics
1. Use a GPS Tracking System for Real-Time Visibility into Your Fleet
There are several benefits to using a GPS tracking system to monitor your fleet. The technology gives you the accurate location of each of your fleet vehicles and makes it easier for you to meet deadlines and customer expectations. You’ll also be able to reduce operating expenses by choosing the best and shortest routes, which also leads to reduced fuel consumption and overtime costs. Fleet managers who use GPS tracking systems also have the power to divert vehicles from busy streets, construction, and accidents in real time to save time and reduce downtime.
2. Register Vehicle Assets in an Asset Management System
When you have a large fleet, it becomes difficult to monitor vehicle maintenance, purchase orders, warranties, and other documentation. If you want the most accurate picture of your vehicle assets and how well your equipment performs, you need to track them throughout their lifespan. This is where an asset management system comes in. This technology keeps track of all critical information relating to your assets and lets you know which vehicles drain your resources, which departments operate efficiently, and when to service or replace your assets. You’ll also save money on those repairs because your asset management system will alert you to the service and repairs that fall within the scope of warranties.
One option for monitoring your fleet is using an enterprise asset management (EAM) system. These systems also have capabilities for creating parts inventories, warranties, and driver data. Many organizations also rely on their EAM to track an asset’s service history know when to service, replace, or retire it. And, the database created in your EAM system provides the foundation for an effective maintenance strategy.
3. Adopt a Consistent Maintenance Schedule and Plan for Preventive Maintenance
Monitoring your fleet vehicles’ maintenance and service needs and planning for preventive maintenance is a must to keep your company up and running and your customers happy. Otherwise, you will run your fleet until vehicles break down, and then you will have to deal with longer periods of downtime. It makes much better business sense to be proactive about maintenance and preventive maintenance to keep your equipment and vehicles in the best possible shape.
Regular fleet maintenance includes oil changes, brake system maintenance, and other system checks and tasks. Proper vehicle maintenance boosts your productivity and efficiency, especially when you schedule the maintenance and can account for the downtime of certain vehicles at various times. The costs associated with maintenance are more affordable than unanticipated repairs, and vehicles that receive regular maintenance run more efficiently and result in lower fuel costs. Well-maintained fleets also help drivers avoid fines when stopped by law enforcement for safety checks.
Monitoring your fleet’s maintenance needs also decreases risk to your drivers. Faulty vehicles can lead to accidents that injure or kill drivers, especially when the brakes fail, steering systems malfunction, and engines stall. Monitoring maintenance and adopting a preventive maintenance plan protects your drivers and your vehicles.
4. Use the Most Relevant Metrics
Data and metrics help organizations manage their fleets as productively and effectively as possible. When you monitor progress using data and metrics, you need to ensure you measure the most relevant pieces of business information to make your insights as useful as possible. Some of the most important metrics for you to monitor include cost per mile, total cost trend, and operating cost summary. The best strategy is to monitor and measure specific data that directly impacts your fleet.
Once you have these metrics and data, be sure to document all your information digitally. Your enterprise asset management system is the place for keeping digital invoices, work orders, receipts, photos, employee records, product manuals, and other important documents. It also helps if you choose a cloud-based system that you can access from any device, anytime, anywhere.
Utilizing fleet monitoring best practices will benefit your organization in nearly countless ways. Make sure you use a GPS tracking system for real-time visibility into your fleet, register vehicle assets in an asset management system, adopt a consistent maintenance schedule and plan for preventive maintenance, and use the most relevant metrics to ensure your fleet’s efficiency and productivity, a better bottom line, and happy customers.
Safety is of the utmost importance when dealing with pressure relief valves. The valve is designed to limit system pressure, and it is critical that they remain in working order to prevent an explosion. Explosions have caused far too much damage in companies over the years, and though pressurized tanks and vessels are equipped with pressure relief vales to enhance safety, they can fail and result in disaster.
That’s also why knowing the correct way to test the valves is important. Ongoing maintenance and periodic testing of pressurized tanks and vessels and their pressure relief valves keeps them in working order and keep employees and their work environments safe. Pressure relief valves must be in good condition in order to automatically lower tank and vessel pressure; working valves open slowly when the pressure gets high enough to exceed the pressure threshold and then closes slowly until the unit reaches the low, safe threshold. To ensure the pressure relief valve is in good working condition, employees must follow best practices for testing them including:
- Perform regular testing on boiler pressure relief valves
- Be aware of the pop-off pressure point
- Know when to repair or replace pressure relief valves
1. Perform Regular Testing on Boiler Pressure Relief Valves
If you consider testing pressure relief valves a maintenance task, you’ll be more likely to carry out regular testing and ensure the safety of your organization and the longevity of your boiler. It is recommended that you test pressure relief valves at least once every six months, especially to reduce leakage caused by the buildup of minerals and corrosion. Scheduling pressure relief valve testing every six months enables you to troubleshoot issues and fix them promptly. Be sure your company documents your relief valve testing activities.
It’s important to note, however, that the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and National Board Inspection Code (NBIC), as well as state and local jurisdictions, may set requirements for testing frequency. Companies are responsible for checking with these organizations to become familiar with the testing requirements. Consider the following NBIC recommendations on the frequency for testing relief valves:
- High-pressure steam boilers greater than 15 psi and less than 400 psi – perform manual check every six months and pressure test annually to verify nameplate set pressure
- High-pressure steam boilers 400 psi and greater – pressure test to verify nameplate set pressure every three years or as determined by operating experience as verified by testing history
- High-temperature hot water boilers (greater than 160 psi and/or 250 degrees Fahrenheit) – pressure test annually to verify nameplate set pressure. For safety reasons, removal and testing on a test bench is recommended
- Low-pressure steam boilers (15 psi and less) – manually check quarterly and pressure test annually
- Hot water heating boilers – manually check quarterly and pressure test annually
- Water heaters – manually check every two months and replace defective valves with a new valve if a repair or resetting is indicated
When testing the pressure relief valve, raise and lower the test lever several times. The lever will come away from the brass stem and allow hot water to come out of the end of the drainpipe. The water should flow through the pipe, and then you should turn down the pressure to stop the leak, replace the lever, and then increase the pressure.
One of the most common problems you can address with regular testing is the buildup of mineral salt, rust, and corrosion. When buildup occurs, the valve will become non-operational; the result can be an explosion. Regular testing helps you discover these issues sooner so you can combat them and keep your boiler and valve functioning properly. If no water flows through the pipe, or if there is a trickle instead of a rush of water, look for debris that is preventing the valve from seating properly. You may be able to operate the test lever a few times to correct the issue. You will need to replace the valve if this test fails.
2. Be Aware of the Pop-Off Pressure Point
When testing relief valves, keep in mind that they have two basic functions. First, they will pop off when the pressure exceeds its safety threshold. The valve will pop off and open to exhaust the excess pressure until the tank’s pressure decreases to reach the set minimum pressure. After this blowdown process occurs, the valve should reset and automatically close. One important testing safety measure is to use a pressure indicator with a full-scale range higher than the pop-off pressure.
Thus, you need to be aware of the pop-off pressure point of whatever tank or vessel you test. You always should remain within the pressure limits of the test stand and ensure the test stand is assembled properly and proof pressure tested. Then, take steps to ensure the escaping pressure from the valve is directed away from the operator and that everyone involved in the test uses safety shields and wears safety eye protection.
3. Know When to Repair or Replace Pressure Relief Valves
When you have pressure relief valves in your facility or along your pipeline system, you need to know they are functional and when to repair or replace them. By testing regularly and following a repair/replacement schedule, you’ll not only ensure the safety and well-being of your organization, but you’ll also extend the life of your valves. There are three times you should consider repairing or replacing your valves: after discharge, according to local jurisdictional requirements, and depending on their service or application.
- After discharge – Because pressure relief valves are designed to open automatically to relieve pressure in your system and then close, they may be able to open and close multiple times during normal operation and testing. However, when a valve opens, debris may get into the valve seat and prevent the valve from closing properly. After discharge, check the valve for leakage. If the leakage exceeds the original settings, you need to repair the valve.
- According to local jurisdictional requirements – Regulations are in place for various locations and industries that stipulate how long valves may operate before needing to be repair or replaced. State inspectors may require valves to be disassembled, inspected, repaired, and tested every five years, for instance. If you have smaller valves and applications, you can test the valve by lifting the test lever. However, you should do this approximately once a year. It’s important to note that ASME UG136A Section 3 requires valves to have a minimum of 75% operating pressure versus the set pressure of the valve for hand lifting to be performed for these types of tests.
- Depending on their service and application – The service and application of a valve affect its lifespan. Valves used for clean service like steam typically last at least 20 years if they are not operated too close to the set point and are part of a preventive maintenance program. Conversely, valves used for services such as acid service, those that are operated too close to the set point, and those exposed to dirt or debris need to be replaced more often.
Pressure relief valves serve a critical role in protecting organizations and employees from explosions. Knowing how and when to test and repair or replace them is essential.
Railways are comprised of hundreds of thousands of individual components and moving parts, including complex mechanical and electrical systems that must work together seamlessly in order to ensure a safe and compliant operation. After all, safe and reliable service depends on equipment that’s in good working order, and equipment that’s well maintained and optimally functioning results in lower operating costs and less downtime due to unpredictable breakdowns and delays.
While rail operations fully understand the need for ongoing preventative maintenance, it’s a time-consuming and expensive process – and due to the challenges that exist in properly tracking and carrying out maintenance activities, it’s easy to allow these preventative measures to fall by the wayside. Here’s a look at a few of the most important best practices and considerations for train maintenance and efficient train maintenance scheduling:
- Dedicated Maintenance Facilities
- Cleaning Trains Not in Service and Wheel Lathes
- Rolling Stock Inspections
- Inspections and Maintenance Required by Law
Dedicated Maintenance Facilities
Trains require dedicated facilities for storage and maintenance. The basic form and function of maintenance facilities in the rail industry has remained largely unchanged over the past century, which can pose challenges for rail companies wanting to adopt more modern maintenance practices.
A maintenance facility, or depot, should consist of:
- Storage yard
- Areas for car cleaning
- Inspection shed or area
- Light maintenance shed or area
- Heavy maintenance shop
- Separate area or shop for locomotives
In some cases, inspection and light maintenance occur in the same building or area, and not all maintenance facilities will have separate shops or designated areas for locomotives.
A designated maintenance area should be easily accessible by both rail and road traffic, ideally with a configuration that enables trains to get into and out of the maintenance area without disrupting the flow of other rail traffic. There should be ample space for large trucks carrying heavy equipment to enter and exit the area as well. Vehicle delivery access by road may also be necessary.
Cleaning Trains Not in Service and Wheel Lathes
When a train is out of service (whether due to maintenance requirements, repairs, or simply not being in use), they must be stabled, during which time they should be cleaned and serviced. Regardless of the reason a train is out of service, taking advantage of stabling time to perform routine service and regular cleaning is a smart use of time.
Most modern train maintenance facilities have an on-site wheel lathe, or a wheel profiling facility. Like the tires on an ordinary, road-use vehicle, the tires on trains wear down over time and must be evaluated regularly to determine if they are in an acceptable condition. When the wheels are worn down beyond a certain point, there are two options: reprofiling the treads to the appropriate shape or replacing the wheels entirely. Reprofiling is a time-consuming and costly process, but fortunately, improvements in wheel design and maintenance now extend the period of time until reprofiling is necessary.
There are also guidelines to consider when it comes to reprofiling. Wheels on cars in the same bogie must have similar diameters up to a certain range (such as 5 mm), and wheels under the same coach may have slightly larger variants but are still subject to limitations (such as no more than 10 mm variation in diameter). Newer vehicles may require an even smaller tolerance, such as no more than 3 mm of variation in diameter. So, if a set of wheels requires reprofiling, not only must these wheels be addressed but other wheels in the same bogie and under the same coach to ensure that these guidelines are met. For this reason, proper planning can drastically reduce downtime and eliminate the excess costs of unnecessary reprofiling.
Rolling Stock Inspections
Rolling stock inspections are a crucial component of train maintenance, allowing for the detection of potential safety hazards and functional issues that can hinder performance and increase risks. Typically, rolling stock maintenance follows a schedule driven by one of several triggers:
- By mileage
- By time
- By condition monitoring
Time-based methods were traditionally used, with functions such as braking safety and wheel condition evaluated on a pre-determined schedule. Later, mileage-based methods became commonplace in an effort to perform maintenance based on the actual usage of the vehicle, rather than a specified amount of time during which a vehicle may have mostly sat idle (and therefore may have different types of wear on different components compared to a train that has spent much of that same time in active service).
Mileage-based maintenance also proved challenging, however, due to the sheer volume of documentation required to accurately track mileage across a multitude of individual vehicles, particularly without the aid of a comprehensive data collection and analysis solution.
Condition-based monitoring is the most modern method used to determine train maintenance schedules, relying on automated data collection and sensors to trigger maintenance checks and processes based on the real-world performance of the vehicle. These methods are also reliant on the use of a data collection and software solution, but as these systems are used more widely today, condition-based monitoring has become a practical and efficient means for managing and scheduling train maintenance activities. Of course, maintenance schedules must also be coordinated with utilization schedules to ensure efficient operations, making the use of comprehensive planning and scheduling software even more desirable for modern railway operators.
Inspections and Maintenance Required by Law
Because railways have been around for many years, they’re prevalent across the U.S. and in many areas of the world. Due to local climate and environmental conditions, it’s necessary for rail operations to adapt their maintenance processes and schedules to the local conditions. Likewise, state and local authorities typically set forth guidelines and regulations for the types of safety inspections and maintenance processes required for their local jurisdictions.
Broadly, the Federal Railroad Administration oversees these regulatory requirements in the U.S. It’s up to operators, however, to be familiar with regulations that impact any area in which a rail system operates and ensure compliance with all applicable local regulations.
Railway operations are complex by design, and it’s this nature that makes coordinating the planning and scheduling of train maintenance a challenging undertaking. From ensuring that proper maintenance facilities are available to coordinating maintenance with out-of-service times and accommodating transit demands, considering every facet of the overall operation is essential for optimal train maintenance practices.